Submitting Xen Project Patches
- 1 How To Generate and Submit Patches to the Xen Project
- 1.1 Generating a patch
- 1.2 Signing off a patch
- 1.3 Making good patches
- 1.4 Providing a git branch
- 1.5 Sending the patches to the list
- 1.6 Review, Rinse & Repeat
- 1.7 What If
- 1.8 How to know when a patch has been committed
- 1.9 After your patch is committed
- 2 How To Generate and Submit a Patch to Qemu-Xen
- 3 How to Generate, and Submit a Xen Project Patch to the Linux Tree
- 4 How to Generate and Submit a Xen related patch to FreeBSD
- 5 How to Generate, and Submit a Xen Project Patch to MiniOS and Unikraft
How To Generate and Submit Patches to the Xen Project
The Xen Project team uses Git for its source code management. The current Xen Project development tree is at http://xenbits.xen.org/gitweb/?p=xen.git; "master" is the branch containing the latest development changesets to pass our automated build and test system.
Generating a patch
Here's a recommendation on how to create patches using git, as suggested by the Xen Project maintainers.
|The instructions on this page use the most common git workflow: aka the patch series is developed on a git branch. Many people find this difficult to work with. There are some alternatives
If you want to use mercurial, please see Submitting_Xen_Patches_-_mercurial.
Begin by cloning the git repo from XenProject.org:
$ git clone git://xenbits.xenproject.org/xen.git xen.git
At this point you should have
xenbits set up as the remote repostiory called "origin":
$ git branch -a * master remotes/origin/HEAD -> origin/master remotes/origin/master remotes/origin/stable-4.0 remotes/origin/stable-4.1 remotes/origin/stable-4.2 remotes/origin/staging remotes/origin/staging-4.0 remotes/origin/staging-4.1 remotes/origin/staging-4.2
This process automatically creates a local branch called
master that will track the XenProject.org branch called
The branch called
staging is the bleeding-edge of commits; this is tested regularly with the
xen.org build and regression testing system, and when it pases, is pushed to the
master branch. It is suggested to develop patches based on the
When you want to introduce a change, start by making a new branch based on the most recent change in the
$ git checkout -b out/trondle-calls master Switched to a new branch 'out/trondle-calls'
Then edit the source files you want to change. You can see which files have changed by using
When you're done editing, use
git add to specify which file changes you want included in the changeset, and then use
git commit to make a commit. You will be prompted to make a changset description:
$ git status # On branch out/trondle-calls # Changes not staged for commit: # (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) # (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) # # modified: foobar/zot.c # modified: foobar/zot.h # no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a") $ git add foobar/zot.c foobar/zot.h $ git commit
Alternatively, you can commit all changes using "git commit -a":
$ git commit -a
foobar: Add a new trondle calls Add a some new trondle calls to the foobar interface to support the new zot feature. Signed-off-by: Joe Smith <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Make as many commits on your new branch as are necessary.
If you want to make a local branch based on
staging rather than
master (for example, to fix a changeset which has caused the XenProject.org nightly testing to fail), you can do the following:
$ git checkout -b staging remotes/origin/staging Branch staging set up to track remote branch staging from origin. Switched to a new branch 'staging'
Then in the commands above, you would use "staging" instead of "master" as the base branch. ...
Signing off a patch
All patches to the Xen Project code base must include the line "Signed-off-by: your_name <your_email>" at the end of the change description. This is required and indicates that you certify the patch under the "Developer's Certificate of Origin" which states:
Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1 By making a contribution to this project, I certify that: (a) The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I have the right to submit it under the open source license indicated in the file; or (b) The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source license and I have the right under that license to submit that work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part by me, under the same open source license (unless I am permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated in the file; or (c) The contribution was provided directly to me by some other person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified it. (d) I understand and agree that this project and the contribution are public and that a record of the contribution (including all personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with this project or the open source license(s) involved.
Making good patches
Patches, if accepted, will turn into commits in the git source tree. There are three people to think about when writing the patch and the comment:
- Reviewers on the mailing list, who are trying to understand what your patch does, if it's correct, and what side effects it will have.
- People skimming through changesets deciding if a patch is important for them to look at for backporting, review, implications on out-of-tree patches, &c.
- Someone in the perhaps distant future, who is trying to understand why the code is the way it is.
Try to make your patches with all of these people in mind. To do this:
Break down your patches
- Each patch should preferably do one logical thing (or one related set of things). The goal is for reviewers to understand the change that each patch is making with a minimum of effort.
- No patch should ever break existing functionality.
- Never fix bugs in one of your patches by changing it in a later patch; go back and change the patch with the bug in it.
- Don't mix clean-up patches (which make things look prettier or move things round but don't change functionality) with code-change patches. Clean-up patches should be clearly marked as having no functional changes.
Write a good description for each patch
- The first line the top of the patch should contain a short description of what the patch does, and hints as to what code it touches
- The description should be useful for both the reviewers and people in the future trying to understand what the patch does. It can be as short as
Code cleanup -- no functional changes, or as long as it takes to accurately describe the bug you are trying to solve or the new functionality you are introducing.
- The description should be wrapped to a maximum of 80 columns.
Cc the maintainer of the code you are modifying
- Please always send a copy of the patch to (via CC) the maintainer of the code you are modifying.
- The maintainers are listed in the MAINTAINERS file at the top of the Xen source tree. If no maintainer is listed then there is no need for a CC (if you are modifying code with no maintainer then you might like to consider becoming the maintainer for that piece of code!).
- You can pipe your patch to the
./scripts/get_maintainer.pltool and it will list the relevant maintainers.
- You can pipe your patch to the
- In addition to CCing the maintainer you should always send patches to (via TO) the email@example.com mailing list as well.
- To add a CC when sending the mail you can use the --cc option to the git send-email command, or you can do it manually in your MUA.
- Note that if you follow the workflow outlined here, this is included in the workflow.
Providing a git branch
If you need to send more than one patches (which normally means you're sending a patch series with cover letter), it is recommended to include a branch pointing to your public git repository (if you have one) in your cover letter, so that people can pull directly from that branch.
Sending the patches to the list
The xen-devel mailing list is moderated for non-subscribers. It is not mandatory to subscribe but it can help avoid this delay. It is possible to subscribe and then disable delivery in the mailman options so as to avoid moderation but not receive list traffic if that is what you would prefer.
Setting up git send-email
To do this, first set configure your information:
git config --global sendemail.from "YOUR NAME <firstname.lastname@example.org>" git config --global sendemail.smtpserver imap.example.org git config --global sendemail.smtpuser USER # depending on your config you may also set: git config --global sendemail.smtpencryption tls
If you don't want to enter password for your SMTP server all the time:
git config --global sendemail.smtppass = PASS
Using git send-email alone
For patches without a cover letter, using git send-email alone, is quite a reasonable option. If you have multiple patches, the workflow in the next section is a easier to use option. If you do use it, check to make sure you have the right patches to be submitted by using
$ git log master.. commit 347175ecaba64c324853f004e4860a941b07e5a9 Author: Joe Smith <email@example.com> foobar: Add new trondle calls ...
Next you need to figure out who (if anyone) you should copy the patches to. To do this you should consult the
MAINTAINERS file at the top of the Xen Project source tree. If there is a specific maintainer listed for the area of the code you are modifying then it is best to copy the patches to them. You should always send patches to the firstname.lastname@example.org mailing list as well.
Once you're sure you have the proper series of patches and know who you are sending it to then you're ready to use
$ git send-email --to email@example.com --cc firstname.lastname@example.org master..
--cc say who to send the mail to the right people.
master.. will tell it to send all changesets on the current branch *after* (not including) the one marked by
Alternatively, you can use the following command line, which will get the CC list from the
$ git send-email --to email@example.com --cc-cmd="./scripts/get_maintainer.pl" master..
Note well, emacs users: if you're running this from an emacs shell, this can get tricky, since all of the editors it wants to offer you require a terminal. The best option is probably to enable server mode and then set emacsclient as the default editor.
Tada! You should shortly see your patch series appear in your inbox, and on the xen-devel mailing list (depending on how you've configured it.)
When sending a series (as opposed to a single patch) it is recommended to proceed it with a "[PATCH 0/N]" mail giving a brief overview of the series. This can be done using the
--compose option to
git send-email or by sending it from you regular email client and then using the
--in-reply-to=<MESSAGE-ID> option (with the contents of message-id header of the 0/N mail) to cause the series to appear as a reply to that message. Note well, that the < and > are a literal part of the message ID (i.e. you should include them).
Other useful options include:
--dry-runwill go through all the motions of preparing the patchbomb, but instead of sending a mail, will just output the mails it would have sent. Useful for testing.
--subject-prefixwill allow you to change the prefix from
[PATCH]to something else. Examples may include
--subject-prefx="PATCH RFC"if you just want to get feedback on a patch series (Request For Comments), or
--subject-prefix="PATCH v3"for the 3rd version of your patch series (see also
Simplest workflow: Git format-patch, add_maintainers.pl/get_maintainer.pl and git send-email
An alternative workflow to just using is git send-email is to use a combination of Git format-patch, git send-email and get_maintainer.pl
Step 1: Create patches using git format-patch
Git format patch allows you to create and save formatted patches in a directory. By default it will create them in the root of your git directory, but you probably want to direct this into a
../patches/feature-version directory (in the examples below
../patches/feature-v2 would contain only v2 of that series). It is also possible to store several version of a patch, e.g. v1, v2, etc in the same
../patches/feature directory). Let's say the last two commits of your head are part of your series you want to send out. In this case, the command line would look like
$ git format-patch --reroll-count=2 --thread --cover-letter -o ../patches/feature-v2 HEAD~2
This will create 3 files, such as
v2-0000-cover-letter.patch v2-0002-Patch-to-do-bar.patch v2-0001-Patch-to-do-foo.patch
Note that you will need to edit the subject and body of
Other useful options include:
--rfc: generates subject lines such as
[RFC PATCH ...]
--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix: e.g. example values are
RFC PATCH RESEND(ignores
PATCH for-4.11, etc.
Step 2: Use add_maintainers.pl (or get_maintainer.pl)
Option 1: use add_maintainers.pl (in-tree in Xen 4.11 or newer, but you should be able to copy the script into older Xen versions without problems)
$ ./scripts/add_maintainers.pl -d ../patches/feature-v2
Then follow the instructions (which are essentially Step 3, with correct command line options based on what you pass to
add_maintainers.pl). Note that the
add_maintainers.pl script works around a limitation of
git send-email ... --cc-cmd="./scripts/get_maintainer.pl" ..., which does not automatically update the CC list of your cover letter.
Other useful options include:
-v 2): If you store your patches in one directory with different versions in it generated by
--reroll-count=2you want to use this option
--patchcc|-p LOCATION: Inserts CC's into a specific location (see
--help) to *.patch files
--covercc|-c LOCATION: Inserts CC's into a specific location (see
--help) to the cover letter
--tags|-t: Adds people who have *-by tags to the mail header (
git send-emaildoes not do this itself)
--tagscc: Adds people who have *-by tags to the CC list
-a "<argument1 with space>" -a <argument2> ...for arguments you want to pass to
Common LOCATION combinations include:
-p commit: copy CC blocks into the *.patch body (CC's will become part of the commit message)
-p none -c header: copy CC blocks from *.patch files in the cover letter without modifying *.patch files. This is useful in rerolled patches, where you do not want to modify the CC blocks.
-p ccbodybehaves similarly, only that any new CCs that may come from an updated MAINTAINERS file or from new files that have been added to *.patch files will be added to *.patch files.
-p comment -c end: copy CC blocks after the *.patch body (CC's will not be committed) and into the body of the cover letter
Option 2: use get_maintainer.pl manually
Foreach <v2 patchfile> in ../patches/feature (with XXXX > 0000): - Run: ./scripts/get_maintainer.pl -f <v2 patchfile> - Review the e-mail list and prefix each line with Cc: - Copy the e-mail CC block into patchfile - Do anything else you want to do manually For v2-0000-cover-letter.patch take the superset of all the files generated previously and merge, then copy the e-mail CC block into 0000-cover-letter.patch
Step 3: Send patches using git send-email
Send the patches using
$ git send-email -to firstname.lastname@example.org ../patches/feature-v2/*.patch
Other useful options include:
Sending Patches Manually
It is strongly recommended to use the git send-email extension discussed above. However it is possible to send a patch manually using your regular mail client.
You should be aware that many mail clients have a tendency to mangle the whitespace of a patch making it impossible to apply. It is highly recommended to read Linux's email-clients.txt for advice on how to avoid this in popular mail clients.
Review, Rinse & Repeat
After posting your patches you will hopefully see some response in the form of comments, patch review and eventually commit.
The form of the review may often be quite direct and to the point which may be daunting for some people. However bear in mind that detailed criticism of a patch usually means that the reviewer is interested in your patch and wants to see it go in!
Once you have addressed any review you should normally resend the patch. It is normally expected that you address all review before reposting. This often means code changes in your patch but could also mean simply responding to the review comments explaining you reasoning or giving reasons why something should be the way it is.
When resending a patch you should normally include a note of what has changed since last time in the message. Common practice is to include these notes after your Signed-off-by separated by a triple-dash ("---"). This indicates patch commentary specific to the posting which need not be included in the final changelog (although you should also remember to update the changelog if necessary). You should also including a "V2" (V3, V4 etc) tag in the subject line (if you are using the git
send-email command then the
--reroll-count=N option is helpful here, or for older git versions
If someone replies to your patch with a tag of the form "Acked-by: <Developer>", "Reviewed-by:", "Tested-by:" etc then, assuming you have not completely reworked the patch, you should include these tags in any reposting after your own Signed-off-by line. This lets people know that the patch has been seen and that someone approves of it and also serves to prevent reviewers wasting time re-reviewing a patch which is not significantly different to last time. The developers with commit access also like to see postings with such tags since it means they are likely to be much easier to deal with and commit.
An example of a resend of the example patch from above might be:
Subject: [PATCH v2] foobar: Add a new trondle calls Add a some new trondle calls to the foobar interface to support the new zot feature. Signed-off-by: Joe Smith <email@example.com> Acked-by: Jane Doe <firstname.lastname@example.org> --- Changed since v1: * fix coding style * be sure to treadle the trondle in the error case. diff -r 63531e640828 tools/libxc/Makefile --- a/tools/libxc/Makefile Mon Dec 07 17:01:11 2009 +0000 +++ b/tools/libxc/Makefile Mon Dec 21 11:45:00 2009 +0000 ...
If you do not get any response to your patch or you got lots of Acked-by's but the patch has not been committed (remember that reviewers and maintainers are busy people too and sometimes things may fall through the cracks) then after some time, perhaps 2-4 weeks (guidelines), you should resend the patch, perhaps including [RESEND] in the subject line to alert people that the last mail was dropped. Before resending you should:
- Check that the patch has not been applied to the staging branch, since committers do not always send a notification when they apply a patch.
- Consider if there is anything you can do to improve the commit message or subject line of your patch to better attract the attention of the relevant people.
Remember to include any Acked-by/Reviewed-by which you received in response to the previous post.
- Your patch is really big?
- Break it up into smaller logically distinct patches
- Example - http://markmail.org/thread/e36vcwk3347de27n
- You have lots and lots of patches? If you are going to generate > 20 patches a week:
- You might want to host a repository tree that the maintainers can pull from, talk to the maintainers
How to know when a patch has been committed
Changes committed to Xen Project by the committers are immediately available in the "staging" branch of the main xen.git tree. They are then automatically tested, and if the tests pass the changes are propagated to the "master" branch.
After your patch is committed
If your patch turns out to break something you will be expected to respond promptly to help diagnose and fix the problem. If it can't be fixed quickly, your change may be reverted.
How To Generate and Submit a Patch to Qemu-Xen
Xen Project uses QEMU as device model, that is the software component that takes care of emulating devices (like the network card) for HVM guests. Two QEMU trees, both using git for revision control, are currently in use by xen.git:
- qemu-xen-traditional: old and stable tree, only bug fixes are accepted in this tree at the moment;
- qemu-xen: new tree used for development, based on the latest stable branch of Upstream QEMU, that currently is available at qemu git repo. See QEMU Upstream on how to manually build it and use it to run VMs.
New features should be developed again the latest upstream QEMU first, see http://wiki.qemu.org/Contribute/SubmitAPatch, then upon request they can be backported to qemu-xen. Only patches that have been acked and committed to qemu.git are eligible to be backported to qemu-xen. In order to request a backport, send an email to email@example.com, specifying the original commit id in qemu.git and the reason why the patch should be backported to qemu-xen.
How to Generate, and Submit a Xen Project Patch to the Linux Tree
Like Xen Project, Linux uses the git SCM. The Linux tree contains documentation on submitting patches, in Documentation/SubmittingPatches, as well as a script (scripts/checkpatch.pl) that ensures your patch is in Linux house style. Running git apply --check on your patch can reveal merge errors.
Patches should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and any relevant Linux maintainers (which can be found by running scripts/get_maintainer.pl on your patch).
The FreeBSD prject uses svn for it's master source tree, although git clones are also available. Checkout the code from either the svn or the git mirror and remember to always create your patch against the HEAD branch. It can be backported to stable versions afterwards, but it needs to be initially committed to HEAD.
How to Generate, and Submit a Xen Project Patch to MiniOS and Unikraft
Unikraft uses several git trees under the unikraft namespace for development: unikraft/. Patches are submitted to minios-devel@ and are marked with a UNIKRAFT prefix (or with a library name prefix), such that they can be differentiated from MiniOS patches. A detailed description of the Unikraft convention can be found in the Unikraft base repository unikraft/unikraft.git: CONTRIBUTING.md.